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Nosema Ceranae in US Bees as early as 1975

Survey for Nosema in preserved Apis (link to PDF)

Brenna E. TRAVER, Richard D. FELL
Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Received 17 April 2014 – Revised 8 June 2014 – Accepted 3 July 2014

Determining when N. ceranae expanded its
host range is difficult as analysis of older samples
is limited because of the lack of preserved samples.

In this study, we purchased preserved, well
cataloged bee samples from a reputable insect
supply company. The samples had been preserved
in ethanol and detailed notes were taken regarding
their collection date and location.

Apis mellifera workers from 1975 (from
Los Angeles County, CA) were co-infected
with both N. apis and N. ceranae (Table I). The percent
infected for both species was high: 80 % for N. ceranae
and 73 % for N. apis